Wednesday, December 23, 2015

Have a Happy Holiday!

Under the Snow-themed tree at the Festival of Trees, Concord Museum, Concord, MA
Have a wonderful holiday break. Celebrate Science will be back in 2016.

Monday, December 21, 2015

Book of the Week: Zoom in on Fireflies

Educators often ask me which of my books would work best in their classroom. So this year, I’ve decided to feature a book each week and highlight related teaching materials and strategies.

Zoom in on Fireflies is perfect for visual literacy lessons. In addition to clear, simple text, it features fascinating close-up images inside “zoom bubbles” that highlight a firefly’s key body parts. The photographic lifecycle diagram at the end of the book introduces readers to yet another way of presenting information visually.

Friday, December 18, 2015

What a Great Idea!

What a great idea! STEM book tubs.

Seeing that Steve Jenkins tub reminds me that I’ve been meaning to share this super-cool slide show describing the process of How to Swallow a Pig by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page. Enjoy!

Wednesday, December 16, 2015

Behind the Books: Blending Writing Styles

For the last few weeks, I’ve been discussing the two nonfiction writing styles—narrative and expository. Many great books fit snugly into one category or the other, but then there are the outliers.  

For example, some nonfiction books that are expository overall, include narrative sections at the beginning and end. And when you really think about it, all narrative nonfiction is a combination of narrative scenes that give readers a bird’s eye view into the people/world being described and expository bridges that link the scenes. The expository sections provide necessary background while speeding through parts of the true story that don’t require close inspection. The art of narrative nonfiction lies in pacing, which means choosing just the right scenes to flesh out.

As long as we’re talking about the necessity of expository passages in narrative writing, I’d like to point out that expository text also exists in many-a-popular fiction books. A good example is the following passage from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.

        “This,” said Wood, “is the Golden Snitch, and it’s the most important ball of the lot. It’s very hard to catch because it’s so fast and difficult to see. It’s the Seeker’s job to catch it.”
         You’ve got to weave in and out of the Chasers, Beaters, Bludgers, and Quaffle to get it before the other team’s Seeker, because whichever Seeker catches the Snitch wins his team an extra hundred and fifty points, so they nearly always win . . . A game of Quidditch only ends when the Snitch is caught, so it can go on for ages.”

Both Harry and the reader need to know how Quidditch works, and this expository passage provides all the information we need.

Okay, back to nonfiction.

Lately, I’ve begun to notice that a growing number of nonfiction books contain roughly equal amounts of narrative and expository text. The author moves seamlessly from one writing style to the other, creating a blended style that serves the subject well.

Here are three examples. I’d like to add a few more titles to this list, so please let me know if you can think of some.

Hurricane Watch by Melissa Stewart

Neighborhood Sharks by Katherine Roy

Sniffer Dogs by Nancy Castaldo

The Great Monkey Rescue by Sandra Markle

When Lunch Fights Back by Rebecca L. Johnson

 

Monday, December 14, 2015

Book of the Week: Out of this World Jokes about the Solar System

Educators often ask me which of my books would work best in their classroom. So this year, I’ve decided to feature a book each week and highlight related teaching materials and strategies.

Don’t be fooled by the title. Out of this World Jokes about the Solar System is more than just a book of jokes. It also contains basic information about plants, moons, comets, asteroids, and more.

And that’s not all. The backmatter includes a 6-page section about how to write jokes using a wide range of language devices, including alliteration, homographs and homophones, and rhyme. There’s no better way to get students to engaging in authentic word play.

Friday, December 11, 2015

10 Great STEM-themed Middle Grade Novels

The Curious World of Calpurnia Tate by Jacqueline Kelly

The Evolution of Calpurnia Tate by Jacqueline Kelly

The Fourteenth Goldfish by Jennifer L. Holm

Fuzzy Mud by Louis Sachar

The Great Trouble by Deborah Hopkinson

Ninjas, Piranhas, and Galileo by Greg Leitch Smith

Scat by Carl Hiassen

The Thing About Jellyfish by Ali Benjamin

The Universe of Fair by Leslie Bulion

When You Reach Me by Rebecca Stead 

Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Behind the Books: Two Kinds of Expository Nonfiction

This week’s topic is one of my favorites—expository nonfiction. As far as I’m concerned, this is a golden moment for expository nonfiction because, in recent years, it’s gone through an exciting transformation.

Once upon a time, it was boring and stodgy and matter-of-fact, but today’s nonfiction books MUST delight as well as inform young readers, and nonfiction authors have risen to the challenge. The books they’re creating feature engaging text, often with a strong voice, as well as dynamic art and design.

Just as there are two distinct kinds of narrative nonfiction, there are two types of expository nonfiction. Facts-plus books focus on facts as well as overarching ideas. In other words, they present facts and explain them.

Fast-fact books focus on sharing cool facts. Period. They inform, and that’s all. These are the concise, fact-filled books that groups of boys love to read together and discuss.

Some people don’t have a very high opinion of fast-fact books, and to be sure, they don’t build reading stamina or critical thinking skills, but they do motivate many reluctant readers to pick up a book, and IMHO that alone makes them worthwhile.

Why do students need to be exposed to a diverse array of expository texts? Because it’s the style of nonfiction they’ll be asked to write most frequently throughout their school careers and in their future jobs. Whether they’re working on a report, a thesis, a business proposal, or even a company newsletter, they’ll need to know how to summarize information and synthesize ideas in a way that is clear, logical, and interesting to their readers. Today’s expository children’s literature makes ideal mentor texts for modeling these skills.

Here are some great books in each expository nonfiction category:

Facts Plus
A Black Hole Is Not a Hole by Carolyn Cinami DeCristofano

Born to Be Giants: How Baby Dinosaurs Grew to Rule the World by Lita Judge

Bugged: How Insects Changed History by Sarah Albee

Eye to Eye by Steve Jenkins

Feathers: Not Just for Flying by Melissa Stewart

Tiny Creatures: The World of Microbes by Nicola Davies

Fast Facts
Animal Grossapedia by Melissa Stewart

Eyewitness Books
 
Guinness Book of World Records

Time for Kids Big Book of Why

Monday, December 7, 2015

Book of the Week: Why Are Animals Red?

Educators often ask me which of my books would work best in their classroom. So this year, I’ve decided to feature a book each week and highlight related teaching materials and strategies.

The clear, simple text and stunning photos in Why Are Animals Red?  are perfect for teaching students about animal adaptations. You can start your lesson with a fun Readers Theater script that I’ve written to accompany the book. I’ve also created a Teachers Guide that makes connections to a wide variety of NGSS and Common Core standards.

For an innovative Reading Buddy experience, try a same-grade-level pairing in which an emergent reader shares Red Animals (two simple words per page) and a more advanced reader shares Why Are Animals Red? I guarantee great results.

Friday, December 4, 2015

Reading Nonfiction Aloud

Educators frequently ask me for strategies for reading nonfiction aloud. It can be tricky.

If a spread is bursting with text features, which should you read first? At what point should you read the main text? What about the captions? Should you discuss the photos or illustrations? How much time should you spend on each page?

I don’t think there are any absolute answers to these questions, in part because what works well for a third grader class may not be appropriate for first graders. In addition, the children in each class may bring different kinds of prior knowledge to the reading experience.

Recently, I had the opportunity to hear Carol Scrimeour, the fantastic teacher-librarian at Essex Elementary School in Essex Junction, Vermont, read my book No Monkeys, No Chocolate aloud to a group of first graders, and I was so impressed with her method that I wanted to share it here.

The main text on the first spread of the book ends with an ellipsis (as does the main text throughout the book). After reading the words, she explained what an ellipsis is and how it’s used.
 
She let students know that they would encounter more ellipses as they read the book, and encouraged the children to say “dot, dot, dot” as a chorus each time an ellipsis appeared. After discussing the artwork briefly, Carol pointed out the bookworms in the corner and read their dialog. As the students laughed at the joke, Carol let them know they’d see these same bookworms again. Then she turned the page.

As Carol finished reading the main text on the second spread, the students all said “dot, dot, dot” right on cue. Then Carol shared the secondary text, the artwork, and the bookworm dialog.

After the students had a good laugh, Carol did something that had never occurred to me but worked like a charm. She re-read the main text before turning the page. This helped to maintain continuity from one spread the next, so students could more easily keep track of the book’s main ideas. Brilliant!

This is a strategy that would work well with any book that has layered text. You may want to give it a try.

Wednesday, December 2, 2015

Behind the Books: Two Kinds of Narrative Nonfiction

I’ve written about narrative nonfiction many times before on this blog, and yet my ideas keep evolving. For a long time, I’ve felt that there are two distinct kinds of narrative nonfiction, but I was having trouble articulating the differences.

Luckily, a Tweep came to my rescue. During a series of conversations with Mary Ann Cappiello, we were able to identify some of the differences and develop a descriptive name for each category.

As part of that dialog, I looked up the definition of story and this is what I found:

a real or imaginary account of people and events told for entertainment

I’m not sure it’s accurate to say that all stories are told for entertainment, and plenty of children’s stories focus on non-human characters, so here’s my own workimg definition:

Story--a real or imaginary account of people/creatures and events.

Most fiction writers would say that a story also needs a narrative plot arc (see diagram) and a conflict that is resolved by the end. To be sure, narrative nonfiction biographies and books about historical events include both of these elements.

But I l prefer my working definition because it makes room for a subset of narrative nonfiction that I’ve struggled to define. It's most common in science-themed picture books that describe a natural process, such as the cycle of a storm or the typical daily, seasonal, or annual activities of a single animal or a host of animals living and interacting in a specific environment.

I have been calling these “cycle stories” for some time, but because I didn’t have an umbrella term for the more common history/biography titles, I kept seeing cycle stories as anomalies. But thanks to Mary Ann’s recent comments and my recollections of a conversation I had with ElizabethPartridge several years ago, I’m now giving the “traditional” narrative nonfiction the label “plot”. Because they do have true narrative arcs with conflicts and resolutions.

Here are some great books in each narrative nonfiction category:

Plot
Ballet for Martha by Jan Greenberg and Sandra Jordan

Bomb by Steve Sheinkin

Buried Alive by Elaine Scott

The Day-Glo Brothers by Chris Barton

The Family Romanov by Candace Fleming

When Marian Sang by Pam Munoz Ryan

Cycle
Beneath the Sun by Melissa Stewart

A Drop of Water by Gordon Morrison

Frog in a Bog by John Himmelman

Red-Eyed Tree Frog by Joy Cowley

Redwoods by Jason Chin (due to the art)

Vulture View by April Pulley Sayre

Monday, November 30, 2015

Book of the Week: Frog or Toad? How Do You Know?

Educators often ask me which of my books would work best in their classroom. So this year, I’ve decided to feature a book each week and highlight related teaching materials and strategies.

Last week, I discussed A Place for Frogs. If you pair it with Frog or Toad? How Do You Know?, you can create a great lesson that looks at text structures and how decisions about text structure impact the research process.

After reading the books to your students, ask them to discuss this following questions:

What is the primary text structure of each book?

Do you think Melissa Stewart used the same body of research to write both books? What is your evidence?

Do you think her information came from the same sources or different ones? What is your rationale?

The primary text structure of A Place for Frogs could be described as either Cause & Effect or Problem-Solution. But Frog or Toad? How Do You Know? has a strong Compare ? Contrast text structure.

Hopefully, students will realize that even though both books are about butterflies, the content of each title is quite different. For Frog or Toad?, My main sources included books and personal observations in the natural world. For A Place for Frogs, I relied heavily on scientific journal articles that I found using a database and interviews with scientists.

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

TCRWP Calendar Day Handout 1: Read Alouds as a Foundation

Recommended Books
Encouraging Observation
Where’s Walrus? by Steve Savage

Duck! Rabbit! by Amy Krause Rosenthal



Introducing Story Sequence
Wave by Suzy Lee

Fossil by Bill Thomson

The Girl and the Bicycle by Mark Peet

Great blog post with suggestions for wordless picture book read alouds:

Words and Pictures that Work Together
Blackout by John Rocco

One Day, The End by Rebecca Kai Dotlich

Where in the Wild by David M. Schwartz




Pictures that Go Beyond the Words
A Couple of Boys Have the Best Week Ever by Marla Frazee

Redwoods by Jason Chin

Visual Teaching Strategies Method
I use images from picture books I’ve written (A Place for Turtles, Feathers: Not Just for Flying, When Rain Falls, Under the Snow), but you can use illustrations from any illustrated book, fiction or nonfiction.

Extracting Content-Area information
Sample Question: How do animals depend on the place where they live?
Book Pair: Just Ducks by Nicola Davies & Hip-pocket Papa by Sandra Markle

Sample Wonder Statement: I wonder how a rain forest is different from a desert.
Book Pair: The Great Kapok Tree by Lynne Cherry & Here Is a Southwestern Desert by Madeliene Dunphy
 
For more samples and book suggestions: Perfect Pairs: Using Fiction & Nonfiction Picture Books to Teach Life Science, K-2 by Melissa Stewart & Nancy Chesley

Books with Designs that Convey an Extra Layer of Information
Move! by Steve Jenkins

Mosquito Bite by Alexandra Siy


The Day-Glo Brothers by Chris Barton

 
 

TCRWP Calendar Day Handout 2: How I Use Mentor Texts

I use mentor texts primarily to help me determine the best voice and structure for a work in process. Nonfiction voice options span a continuum, from lively to lyrical. A writer’s topic and the approach he/she chooses will dictate the best voice choice for a particular piece.

Great Books with a Lively Voice
Animal Grossapedia by Melissa Stewart

Army Ant Parade by April Pulley Sayre

A Black Hole Is Not a Hole by Carolyn Cinami DeCristofano

Bone by Bone: Comparing Animal Skeletons by Sarah Levine

Bugged: How Insects Changed History by Sarah Albee

How They Choked by Georgia Bragg

Lives of the Explorers: Discoveries, Disasters (and What the Neighbors Thought) by Kathleen Krull

Oh, Yikes! History’s Grossest, Wackiest Moments by Joy Masoff

Poop Happened: A History of the World from the Bottom Up by Sarah Albee

See How They Run by Susan E. Goodman

What to Do About Alice? by Barbara Kerley

What to Expect When You’re Expecting Larvae: A Guide for Insect Parents (and Curious Kids) by Bridget Heos

Thank You, Sarah by Laurie Halse Anderson


Great Books with a Lyrical Voice
Ballet for Martha by Jan Greenberg and Sandra Jordan

Beneath the Sun by Melissa Stewart

Brown Girl Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson

Dave the Potter by Laban Carrick Hill

An Egg is Quiet by Dianna Aston Hutts

Feathers: Not Just for Flying by Melissa Stewart

Frog Song by Brenda Z. Guiberson

Lightship by Brian Floca

On a Beam of Light by Jennifer Berne

Planting the Trees of Kenya: The Story of Wangari Maathai by Claire A. Nivola

The Secret World of Walter Anderson by Hester Bass

Step Gently Out by Helen Frost

Under the Snow by Melissa Stewart

When Marian Sang by Pam Munoz Ryan

Vulture View by April Pulley Sayre




Another Great Resource
https://twowritingteachers.wordpress.com/author/dmurphy2013/

-------------------------------------------------------------
Nonfiction Categories

Life Story
The Boy Who Loved Math by Deborah Heiligman

Brave Girl by Michelle Markle

Brown Girl Dreaming by Jacqueline Woodson

El Deafo by Cece Bell

The Family Romanov by Candace Fleming

Lives of the Presidents (and What the Neighbors Thought) by Kathleen Krull

Separate Is Never Equal by Duncan Tonatium

The Right Word by Jen Bryant

 
Survey Book
Eyewitness Books

The Horrible, Miserable Middle Ages by Kathy Allen

Lightning by Seymour Simon

National Geographic Readers

Spiders by Nic Bishop

Why’d They Wear That? by Sarah Albee

 
Specialized Nonfiction
Chasing Cheetahs by Sy Montgomery

Handle with Care by Loree Griffin Burns

Feathers: Not Just for Flying by Melissa Stewart

Meadowlands: A Wetlands Survival Story by Tom Yezerski 

Sniffer Dogs by Nancy Castaldo

Sugar Changed the World by Marc Aronson and Marina Budhos

The Port Chicago 50 by Steve Sheinkin


Concept Book
Actual Size by Steve Jenkins

Just a Second by Steve Jenkins

Lifetime by Lola Schaefer

Mysterious Patterns: Finding Fractals in Nature by Sarah C. Campbell

No Monkeys, No Chocolate by Melissa Stewart

A Place for Butterflies by Melissa Stewart

Seeing Symmetry by Loreen Leedy

A Star in My Orange by Dana Meachen Rau

Trout Are Made of Trees by April Pulley Sayre

 
-------------------------------------------------------------
Writing Styles

Expository
Facts Plus
A Black Hole Is Not a Hole by Carolyn Cinami DeCristofano

Born to Be Giants: How Baby Dinosaurs Grew to Rule the World by Lita Judge

Bugged: How Insects Changed History by Sarah Albee

Eye to Eye by Steve Jenkins

Feathers: Not Just for Flying by Melissa Stewart

Tiny Creatures: The World of Microbes by Nicola Davies

 
Fast Facts
Animal Grossapedia by Melissa Stewart

Eyewitness Books

Guinness Book of World Records

Time for Kids Big Book of Why

 
Narrative
Plot
Ballet for Martha by Jan Greenberg and Sandra Jordan

Bomb by Steve Sheinkin

Buried Alive by Elaine Scott

The Day-Glo Brothers by Chris Barton

The Family Romanov by Candace Fleming

When Marian Sang by Pam Munoz Ryan

Cycle
Beneath the Sun by Melissa Stewart

A Drop of Water by Gordon Morrison

Frog in a Bog by John Himmelman

Red-Eyed Tree Frog by Joy Cowley

Redwoods by Jason Chin (due to the art)

Vulture View by April Pulley Sayre

 
-------------------------------------------------------------
Common Text Structures

Description/Explanation  
A Black Hole Is Not a Hole by Carolyn Cinami DeCristofano

The Beetle Book by Steve Jenkins

Creep and Flutter by Jim Arnosky
Dolphins! by Melissa Stewart

Frogs by Nic Bishop

Lightship by Brian Floca

Tiny Creatures: The World of Microbes by Nicola Davies

What to Expect When You’re Expecting Larvae: A Guide for Insect Parents (and Curious Kids) by Bridget Heos

 
Sequence
Chronological narrative
Balloons Over Broadway by Melissa Sweet

The Boy Who Loved Math by Deborah Heiligman

Buried Alive
by Elaine Scott

The Day-Glo Brothers by Chris Barton

Marvelous Mattie by Emily Arnold McCully

Noah Webster & His Words by Jeri Chase Ferris

Planting the Trees of Kenya: The Story of Wangari Maathai by Claire A. Nivola

Pop: The Invention of Bubble Gum by Megan McCarthy

The Secret World of Walter Anderson by Hester Bass

What to Do About Alice? by Barbara Kerley 


Episodic narrative
Ballet for Martha by Jan Greenberg and Sandra Jordan

Brave Girl by Michelle Markel

When Marian Sang by Pam Munoz Ryan


Braided narrative
Amelia Lost by Candace Fleming

Bomb by Steve Sheinkin

The Family Romanov by Candace Fleming

Titanic: Voices from the Disaster by Deborah Hopkinson

We’ve Got a Job by Cynthia Levinson

 
Journey narrative
If Stones Could Speak by Marc Aronson

Lost Treasure of the Inca by Peter Lourie

Quest for the Tree Kangaroo by Sy Montgomery

Saving the Ghost of the Mountain by Sy Montgomery


Cycle narrative
A Drop of Water by Gordon Morrison

Frog in a Bog by John Himmelman

Red-Eyed Tree Frog by Joy Cowley

Redwoods by Jason Chin (due to the art)

Beneath the Sun by Melissa Stewart

Vulture View by April Pulley Sayre


Chronological expository
Bugged: How Insects Changed History by Sarah Albee

Poop Happened!: A History of the World from the Bottom Up by Sarah Albee

Why'd They Wear That?: Fashion as the Mirror of History by Sarah Albee



Cumulative expositoryHere Is the Tropical Rain Forest by Madeleine Dunphy

No Monkeys, No Chocolate by Melissa Stewart
Older Than the Stars by Karen C. Fox


How-to expository
Dessert Designers: Creations You Can Make and Eat by Dana Meachen Rau

How to Swallow a Pig by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page

The Klutz Book of Paper Airplanes by Doug Stillinger

Roald Dahl's Revolting Recipes by Josie Fison and Felicity Dahl

Try This! 50 Fun Experiments for the Mad Scientist in You by Karen Romano Young

 
Compare & Contrast
Dueling spreads
Frog or Toad? How Do You Know? by Melissa Stewart

Daylight Starlight Wildlife by Wendell Minor
Mosquito Bite by Alexandra Siy

Neo Leo by Gene Barretta

Those Rebels, Tom & John by Barbara Kerley

 
List book
Born in the Wild by Lita Judge

Born to Be Giants: How Baby Dinosaurs Grew to Rule the World by Lita Judge

Eye to Eye by Steve Jenkins

Feathers: Not Just for Flying by Melissa Stewart

Move by Steve Jenkins & Robin Page

My First Day by Steve Jenkins & Robin Page

Just One Bite by Lola Schaefer

 
Q & A Books
Bone by Bone: Comparing Animal Skeletons by Sarah Levine

Sterling's Good Question series

Creature Features by Steve Jenkins & Robin Page

Hatch! by Roxie Munro

Hello Bumblebee Bat by Darrin Lunde

Scholastic's Question & Answer series

What Do You Do with a Tail Like This? by Steve Jenkins & Robin Page


Cause & Effect
Earth: Feeling the Heat by Brenda Z. Guiberson

Frog in a Bog by John Himmelman

A Place for Butterflies by Melissa Stewart

When Rain Falls by Melissa Stewart
 
-------------------------------------------------------------
Books with Layered Text

Actual Size by Steve Jenkins

Beaks by Sneed B. Collard

The Bumblebee Queen by April Pulley Sayre

A Butterfly is Patient by Diana Hutts Aston

Dolphin Baby by Nicola Davies

An Egg is Quiet by Diana Hutts Aston

Here Come the Humpbacks! by April Pulley Sayre

Just Ducks! by Nicola Davies

Leaving Home by Sneed B. Collard

Meet the Howlers by April Pulley Sayre

Move! by Steve Jenkins & Robin Page

Never Smile at a Monkey by Steve Jenkins

No Monkeys, No Chocolate by Melissa Stewart

One Tiny Turtle by Nicola Davies

A Place for Bats by Melissa Stewart

A Place for Birds by Melissa Stewart

A Place for Butterflies by Melissa Stewart

A Place for Fish by Melissa Stewart

A Place for Frogs by Melissa Stewart

A Place for Turtles by Melissa Stewart

A Rock Is Lively by Diana Hutts Aston

A Seed is Sleepy by Diana Hutts Aston

What Do You Do with a Tail Like This? by Steve Jenkins & Robin Page

When the Wolves Returned by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent

Wings by Sneed B. Collard

No Monkeys, No Chocolate Revision Timeline
http://www.melissa-stewart.com/timeline/10yr_timeline.html


How to Find Great Nonfiction Mentor Texts

         AAAS/Subaru Prizes for Excellence in Science Books

         ALA Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Award

         CRA Eureka! Nonfiction Children’s Book Award

         Cook Prize for STEM Picture Book

         Cooperative Children’s Book Center Choices List

         Cybils Nonfiction Awards

         NCSS Notable Social Studies Trade Books for Young People

         NCTE Orbis Pictus Award for Outstanding Nonfiction for Children

         NSTA-CBC Outstanding Science Trade Books for Students K-12

         YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults