Friday, May 18, 2018

In the Classroom: No More All About Books—Please!

For many years, all-about books have been the go-to informational writing project in elementary classrooms across the U.S. But I think it’s time to re-consider that assignment. Before I explain why, here’s a little bit of background.

Last December, I introduced and described a system for classifying informational books that I call the Nonfiction Family Tree. It received such a great response that I discussed it again (and provided a list of sample books) in early January. Then I suggested an activity for introducing it to students later in the month. Around this time, Nerdy Book Club co-founder Colby Sharp (@colbysharp) invited me to create this video for his blog and SLJ invited me to write this article, which compiled all my thoughts on the topic in writing.

For today’s discussion, I’m going to focus on Traditional Nonfiction and Expository Literature. Traditional nonfiction provides a general introduction to a broad topic. These survey (all about) books, which are often published in large series, feature clear, concise, straightforward language and usually have a description text structure.

These books can be a great place to start the research process because they provide an overview of a topic, but they aren’t the best mentor texts for producing engaging, finely-crafted informational writing. For that, expository literature, which emphasizes depth rather than breadth of coverage, is a better choice.

This has nothing to do with how talented the writers are and everything to do with the inherent differences of writing about a broad topic versus a focused one. Simply put, broad topics limit a nonfiction writer’s ability to craft rich, engaging text.

When writers take an in-depth look at a specific idea or concept, they can be more playful and innovative. They can select a format and text structure that reflects their unique approach to the content. They can experiment with voice and language devices. Because writers of traditional nonfiction must cover a huge amount of information in a limited number of words, they don’t have the same kind of opportunities to delight as well as inform.

When we ask children to write all about books, we’re giving them a handicap right off the bat. Students will be most successful when they choose a topic they’re passionate about and zoom in on a specific question or unique perspective that allows them to use the nonfiction craft moves they’ve learned to the best of their ability. Let’s give our young writers a chance to shine.

 

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Narrative vs. Expository: Writing Nonfiction Picture Books

I’m excited to host award-winning author Maria Gianferrari today. Thanks, Maria, for describing your creative process.

I love nonfiction, both reading it and writing it, so I’m delighted and honored to be guest posting today on Celebrate Science since it’s my favorite nonfiction blog. I have a deep love of the natural world and the creatures who live in it, and I aim to celebrate nature’s wonders in my nonfiction writing.

Today, I’ll be talking a bit about the similarities and differences in writing narrative vs. expository STEM nonfiction. I have two titles out in 2018, my first expository title, Terrific Tongues illustrated by Jia Liu (Boyds Mills), and Hawk Rising, a narrative nonfiction book illustrated by Brian Floca (Roaring Brook).

What do these titles have in common? Obsession. In the former, it was my then toddler’s obsession with all things tongue that led to researching animal tongues. In the latter, it was my own obsession with searching for perching red-tailed hawks while driving down the highway.

Though the voices are quite distinct, the books have some language devices in common. In Terrific Tongues, I use similes to compare cool creature tongues to common objects, like straws, mops, windshield wipers, etc. Here’s an example:



Terrific Tongues began as a poem, and some of that is retained on the penultimate spread of the book where the tongue’s dynamic actions are described in verse:

Since these various creature tongues have very unique and interesting features, it made sense to try to use a more playful and humorous voice. The next challenge was how best to present the information. I went through a series of drafts, and then re-reading Steve Jenkins’ and Robin Page’s What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? inspired me to use a guessing game format.

Page turns make the experience of reading Terrific Tongues fast-paced and add an element of surprise. I’ve read it for World Read Aloud Day as well as some school visits, and kids love trying to guess the creatures that belong to the various tongues. Jia Liu’s whimsical art further serves to amplify the book’s humor. Though purists might disagree, I think the monkey character adds a fun touch to the book.
 
In Hawk Rising, the voice is more lyrical than lively, and a narrative writing style worked best to give a glimpse into the life of a predatory bird. I use spare poetic prose and language devices like assonance, imagery, and sensory details. Here’s an example:

Both Terrific Tongues and Hawk Rising employ second person point of view. The use of “you” draws readers in and makes them feel like participants. In Terrific Tongues, it also encourages empathy: kids can imagine what it would be like to have a tongue like a whip or an arrow. And in Hawk Rising, “you” also serves as a refrain in the story. “You” is both the reader and the sibling observers of the hawk family. It helps to forge a connection between our human families and the hawk family. Use of the present participle “ing” form makes the story and action feel more present and immediate.
 
Both Terrific Tongues and Hawk Rising have a circular structure. In Terrific Tongues, the text begins and ends with the saying, “Stick out your tongue” (which of course, kids love to do), with a minor modification at the end, “say AAAAAH.”
On the other hand, Hawk Rising is an episodic life story about predators, so the circular structure is more obvious: the action takes place over the course of a day, creating a sense of immediacy. The passing of time becomes like a ticking clock adding tension to the story—will the chicks eat before the day’s end? 
Another thing I love about writing nature-y nonfiction is weaving in scientific details about diet, habitat, the predator-prey relationship. They can be woven directly into the narrative, as is the case with Hawk Rising, or through the use of layered text in Terrific Tongues. Back matter is another fun way to add in cool facts while keeping the main text spare. I am a complete and total back matter nerd! It’s one of my favorite things to read and write.
Happy nonfiction reading and writing, and thank you, Melissa, for allowing me to guest post on one of my favorite topics!!

Maria Gianferrari is a picture book reading/writing, tea-drinking, dog-loving, birdwatching resident of Virginia and author of the Penny & Jelly books, Coyote Moon (an ALA Notable Book and Junior Library Guild Selection), Officer Katz and Houndini and Hello Goodbye Dog. Her newest titles are Terrific Tongues (Boyds Mills), Hawk Rising (a JLG selection from Roaring Brook) and Operation Rescue Dog (Little Bee). To learn more about Maria, visit her website: mariagianferrari.com, on Facebook and Instagram.

Monday, May 14, 2018

5 Faves: Expository Nonfiction Recommended by Angie Moore

Reading nonfiction books during library storytime is still somewhat new to me, and it is not easy to keep the attention of 3-5 year-olds, but books like these have made it so much fun...for me and my students!
A Butterfly Is Patient by Dianna Aston, illustrated by Sylvia Long
This book is one of many by this author/illustrator duo, and it is as lovely to look at as it is to read. Our preschool classes are hatching caterpillars, and this book makes a perfect read aloud for them. It has simple phrases as main text with supporting details scattered around the page in smaller type. I like that I can read parts of it in more detail as their caterpillars reach different stages.
 

Feathers: Not Just for Flying by Melissa Stewart, illustrated by Sarah S. Brannen
This was a fascinating book, and I learned as much as my kiddos did about feathers! It makes a great partner read with Mama Built a Little Nest by Jennifer Ward. The illustrations are fantastic and make the book look almost like a scrapbook, which is a concept that may be new to little ones.
 

Squirrels Leap, Squirrels Sleep by April Pulley Sayre, illustrated by Steve Jenkins
I received this book as part of a book shipment in the fall, and I wasn’t sure what to expect, but I immediately loved it, and so did my kinders! We had so much fun reading it. I paired it with Full of Fall, also by Sayre, for a poetry/fall themed storytime.
 
Who Am I? An Animal Guessing Game by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page
This book is great for a few reasons.  First, it is a board book. As a mom, I loved board books for my own children, and in the library they are awesome! They are very durable, and the kids love them! Second, this book has simple, informative text paired with bright bold illustrations. Finally, Who Am I?  Is a guessing game! It keeps storytime interactive, loud, and hopping!
 
Whose Nest? by Lynette Evans and Guy Troughton
I walked by this lovely book in my kindergarten library for over a year and finally decided to read it a few weeks ago. I am so sorry I waited so long! This nonfiction book about animal nests is the perfect book for curious kinders and preschoolers! It was one of my favorite read alouds this year! It brought so much discussion, and the students were entranced! The illustrations are beautiful, and some eagle-eyed littles even caught on to the clues in the text. This book will definitely make it into my regular read aloud rotation!
 
 

Angie Moore is a Preschool-4th Grade librarian at Waverly Community Schools in Lansing, Michigan. She has been married to her best friend, Michael, for almost 19 years, is a mom to two amazing boys, ages almost 12 and 16, and is a College of Education student at Ferris State University. She can be found drinking copious amounts of coffee while reading picture books or on Twitter @almemoore

Friday, May 11, 2018

In the Classroom: The Power of Peer Critiques

I’m in a critique group that meets twice a month at a library in the next town. At each meeting, four people read up to eight pages of a work-in-progress and receive feedback from the rest of the group.
Sharing manuscripts with my critique group is a critical part of my writing process because my buddy editors see a whole range of problems that I’m blind to. When I bring them a manuscript, I think it’s pretty much perfect. I’ve taken it as far as I can on my own. I know it’s time to share it with other people and see what happens.

But I’m not sharing my writing with just anyone. I’m sharing it with a small group of fellow children’s authors who I’ve known for 16 years. I trust these people. I know they’ll be kind, but honest. I may not always agree with their comments, but I know it will help me and my manuscript if I listen closely and consider their thoughts carefully.

When I do school visits, I always ask students if buddy editing/peer critiquing/writing partners is part of their process. If not, I urge them (and their teachers) to give it a try. If so, we discuss some of the problems a peer might help us identify. Most of the time, their list is nearly identical to mine.

They tell us:
—when we’ve left out important details

—when we’ve included extraneous information

—when the text structure or voice or point of view doesn’t work

—when an explanation doesn’t make sense and a comparison might help

—when we should hunt for stronger verbs

—when the beginning doesn’t hook the reader

—when the ending falls flat (my personal weakness)

I can’t imagine sending a piece to my editor without the input of my critique groups, and I think the same should be true for young writers. We are so close to our writing that we really need another set of eyes to help us see the weaknesses in our early drafts.

Monday, May 7, 2018

5 Faves: Expository Nonfiction Recommended by Alyson Beecher

Psst! Come closer... I have a little secret to share or maybe a confession. I started this post in August, but with the start of the school year and new responsibilities at work, I ended up putting it on hold. Over the past year, I have been reading and loving everyone’s 5 Faves. When Melissa reached out to me again about doing my 5 Faves, I immediately said “yes.”
 
As I prepared for this post, I reviewed all of the previous posts to see what books have been mentioned. And then I had a momentary feeling of panic. How can I whittle down the hundreds of expository nonfiction books that I have read and pick only five? What if I pick the wrong books? Breathe! This isn’t a test and there are no right choices. I decided to select five books that surprised, entertained, and educated me.

Behold the Beautiful Dung Beetle by Cheryl Bardoe; Illustrated by Alan Marks (Charlesbridge, 2014)
Some books are easy to book talk. Books with a high gross factor or ones that talk about poop are particularly fascinating to kids. Bardoe provides readers with a basic understanding of the life cycle and habitat of the dung beetle. Marks’ illustrations take Bardoe’s text to the next level.
I also loved learning about why the Egyptians revered dung beetles, otherwise known as scarabs.

Born in the Wild: Baby Mammals and Their Parents by Lita Judge (Roaring Brook Press, 2014)
Children (and adults) love baby animals. It is easy for children to find similarities between themselves and baby animals born in the wild. Judge provides simple facts about animal families and the need for shelter, protection, food, and attention.

In addition to loving the informative expository text, the illustrations in the book are gorgeous. This can be used as a read aloud or as a mentor text for writing.

I, Fly: The Buzz About Flies and How Awesome They Are by Bridget Heos; Illustrated by Jennifer Plecas (Henry Holt & Co., 2015)
Since I am aware that humor is a powerful tool for drawing in readers, I am always on the lookout for books that use humor effectively to convey information. I, also, admired the use of the fly as a narrator and the interaction with the audience.
Though this book is not as easily used as a read aloud, I find that it is perfect for two or three children to share and engage in conversation.
 

The Most Amazing Creature in the Sea by Brenda Guiberson; Illustrated by Gennady Spirin (Henry Holt & Co., 2015)
From the moment I started reading this book, I fell in love with it. I particularly enjoyed the structure of the text.
I loved how Guiberson starts with each creature identifying itself as the most amazing creature of the sea followed by reasons why it’s so amazing. This is another book that I enjoy using as a read aloud and also as a mentor text for writing.

Otters Love to Play by Jonathan London; Illustrated by Meilo So (Candlewick, 2016)
When I finished reading this book, I realized that London had created text as engaging and playful as the subject he was writing about. Another reason, I love this book is the dual text that graces each two page spread.  
On one level is a narrative text set in large type that tells the story of an otter family. In smaller type, readers can enjoy expository text that provides a treasure trove of factual details. In addition to using this as a read aloud, teachers can use this as a mentor text.
 
Thank you Melissa for inviting me to share my 5 Fave Expository Nonfiction titles and for tirelessly advocating for expository nonfiction to be read and shared in classrooms.
 
Alyson Beecher is an educator, book geek, and blogger. She has a serious book addiction and a love for nonfiction picture books, which led her to begin the Nonfiction Picture Book Challenge on Wednesdays on her blog. Her passion is getting students excited about books, reading, and writing. You can find her on twitter as @alybee930 or on her blog: Kid Lit Frenzy.

Friday, May 4, 2018

In the Classroom: Gateway Nonfiction and the Nonfiction Continuum

I first heard the term “gateway nonfiction” from children’s book author and nonfiction thought leader Marc Aronson in 2012. He attributes it to librarian Jonathan Hunt, who defines it as books that can form a bridge between the browseable books that captivate elementary students and middle-grade narrative nonfiction.

Both Aronson and Hunt believe that we need to clearly identify the characteristics of such books and publish more of them. I whole-heartedly agree. I’ve been thinking about the kinds of books that could fill this critical chasm ever since.

In this 2013 SLJ article, Aronson shares some ideas about the books he thinks could constitute “gateway nonfiction.” Basically, he’s describing what many people now call active nonfiction. While I think these books could bridge the gap for some readers, more and more, I’m leaning toward titles that blend the traits of narrative nonfiction and expository literature as the best way to help the majority of upper elementary readers transition to the more sophisticated titles they need to tackle in middle school and high school.

Why do I consider these blended books prime candidates for the moniker “gateway nonfiction”? Because studies show that some students have a natural affinity for stories and storytelling (fiction and narrative nonfiction), while others have a clear preference for expository writing. And some students enjoy both writing styles equally. As a result, books that combine expository and narrative text can help info-kids learn to appreciate narrative writing. It can also help story-loving kids learn to navigate expository text. Why is that important? Because, ideally, we want all students (and adults) to feel comfortable reading a wide range of texts.

I wrote a little bit about blended nonfiction titles in last week’s post, which introduced what I call the Nonfiction Continuum. You may want to scroll down and read that post. Today, I’m recommending a half dozen high-interest books that integrate narrative and expository writing styles. If these titles aren’t already part of your collection, I recommend adding them.
 



Masters of Disguise: Amazing Animal Tricksters by Rebecca L. Johnson (Millbrook Press, 2016)



Sniffer Dogs: How Dogs (and their Noses) Save the World by Nancy Castaldo (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014)

Snowy Owl Invasion: Tracking an Unusual Migration by Sandra Markle (Millbrook Press, 2017)

 
When Lunch Fights Back: Wickedly Clever Animal Defenses by Rebecca L. Johnson (Millbrook Press, 2014) 

Zombie Makers: True Stories of Nature’s Undead by Rebecca L. Johnson (Millbrook Press, 2012)
 
In addition, most books in the Let’s Read and Find Out series (published by HarperCollins) are a blend of expository and narrative text.